Author: Marylin Saldago

What Are Wheels and Tires Made of?

Many people use the terms wheel and tire interchangeably, but they serve very different functions. A wheel is a metal component that holds compressed air while a tire is a rubber oval that helps the vehicle maintain traction.

wheels and tires

The amount of weight a tire is designed to carry at a specified air pressure. The load-carrying capacity is determined by the thickness of the rubber-coated fabric plies.

The wheel and tire are your vehicle’s connection to the road, affecting handling, ride comfort, and even fuel efficiency. It is not something you want to take for granted.

A tire, or tyre (in Commonwealth English), is a ring-shaped component that mounts around the wheel’s rim to transfer its load and provide traction on the surface over which it rolls. It is pneumatically inflated to create a cushion that absorbs shock and provides a flexible contact patch, matching the weight of the car to the bearing strength of the surface it rolls over.

The rim of a wheel is the entire metal portion that holds the tubeless tire, and it fosters outer seals to maintain air pressure inside the tire. It may also have a hub to connect the wheel to the axle. Wheels may be cast from a single piece of metal, or made in a machined process from several parts.

Rims can be bent or damaged by hitting curbs, parallel parking and heavy use. They can corrode over time from road salts, or simply wear out due to age and heavy loads.


Aspect ratio is the proportion of a tire’s sidewall height to its width; it appears after the slash in a size code, such as P205/65R16. Tyres that have an aspect ratio of less than optimal can result in excessive sidewall flex and tread squirm, which limits traction.

The traction force generated by a tire as it rolls over the road surface; inverse of centrifugal force, which turns a car around a corner. The traction force is increased by properly maintaining the air pressure in a tire; under-inflated tires generate more friction and can cause loss of handling stability. Tires should be inspected and re-inflated on a regular basis to ensure that the contact patch remains in good condition.


The wheels and tires you choose for your vehicle are a huge factor in how well it drives. They also add a lot to the appearance of your car. So what are they made of?

Steel is one of the most common materials for wheels and tires because it’s both strong and affordable. It’s also easier to repair if it gets bent because it can be hammered back into shape without cracking or breaking.

Many passenger cars have alloy wheels because of their light weight and strength. They’re a good choice for a wide range of driving styles and performance levels. They tend to flex under stress and can absorb some of the forces that impact the wheel rim, such as road bumps or sudden stops.

The steel wires or cords that make up the sidewalls and bead of a tire are called plies. Each of these plies is rubber-coated and consists of different layers that contribute to the tire’s carrying capacity, flexibility and durability. Some plies have fabric bonded to them, such as cotton, rayon or polyester, but these aren’t part of the basic construction material branding and aren’t visible from the outside of a tire.


A wheel and tire package is more than just a convenient way to upgrade the look of your car. A good set of tires and rims not only improve handling, but they can also provide your vehicle with an extra level of safety.

The bead chafer is a key component that securely fastens the tire to the wheel. It is designed to withstand the force that the wheel exerts on the tire during mounting and the dynamic forces of driving and braking.

A system of steel cords wrapped in rubber that acts as a strip or belt under the tread and helps prevent flat tires. A common feature on modern tires, they are a necessity to help maintain proper air pressure and allow for a smoother ride.

An alphanumeric code found on every tire that complies with Department of Transportation regulations for highway use. The code is usually comprised of up to 12 letters and numbers, indicating things like the tire’s manufacturer, plant location and date of manufacture.


When it comes to your vehicle, wheels and tires are a vital part of the overall drive. Both have different purposes and work together to create a vehicle that can move, but the two terms are often used interchangeably even though they serve completely different functions.

Wheels are the circular metal parts that tires mount on to and allow them to turn. They are manufactured in a wide variety of sizes to suit many cars, and some may require a tire change when the size changes.

The rim is the metal part of the wheel that holds the tire. It is made from a steel alloy or aluminum, and it can also be made with an attractive design. The most common rim type is a steel wheel, although alloy wheels are becoming more popular due to their beauty and durability.

The tire is a ring-shaped rubber object that fastens around the rim of a wheel. It contains two major components: the tread, which is responsible for the movement created by a tire and wheel when force is applied, and the body, which enables the containment of a specific amount of compressed air. The tire also has mounting humps, which support the tire edges on the inboard and outboard rim flanges.


A wheel is the circular metal component bolted to your vehicle’s hub that carries a tire and is found in the inner part of the car. The tire is a ring-shaped rubber object that wraps around the rim and contains a specific amount of compressed air. The wheels convert the power of your engine into the spinning force that moves your vehicle over the road. The tires provide the traction required to maintain contact with the road.

Wheels come in many different types, depending on their construction, material, diameter, and more. Some are made in one piece while others have a two or three-piece configuration. Two-piece wheels are generally comprised of a cast, billet or fully forged center section that is welded to the rim barrel.

Steel wheels often get a bad rap because they are heavy and don’t offer the aesthetics that other options do, but they’re still a popular choice for many cars due to their durability and affordability. They’re also resistant to damage caused by deicers, gravel and brake dust. Some people keep a set of steel wheels on hand for winter driving, as the heavier weight helps to dig the car’s tires into snow to improve traction.


Wheels and tires are the vehicle’s connection to the road and directly affect traction, ride comfort and fuel efficiency. They also provide a major aesthetic component.

The wheels on your car are built from steel, aluminum or a combination of both, depending on your specific needs and budget. The material, as well as the construction method, determines strength and weight.

Steel wheels are the most basic and were standard equipment on low-cost vehicles for decades until alloy rims became more affordable. They are pressed out from steel billets and are quite durable, but are also heavy.

Modern, lightweight aluminum wheels are available in a wide range of styles and are more cost-effective than steel ones. They are cast or forged and machined into shape and then welded together.

Forged aluminum provides the best combination of strength and light weight. They are made by heating the metal and then pressing it into shape. They are stronger than cast aluminum wheels and less prone to cracking, but they still require more time and machinery to produce than casting.

Stucco Repair Tips

Stucco is a durable, low maintenance siding material that’s available in a wide variety of colors and styles. It’s also highly resistant to severe weather conditions, a big bonus for homeowners.

Stucco Repair

However, like other types of siding, stucco can fail from time to time. This is called deterioration, and it can have an effect on the rest of your home. For professional stucco repair services, you can contact Stucco Repair Philadelphia.

Stucco is a type of material that is meant to protect the exterior walls of your home. However, it’s not unheard of for stucco to deteriorate and cause significant structural damage. This can happen if you’re not careful when it comes to your stucco repair needs, or if your contractor isn’t experienced enough to handle stucco repairs.

If you’re a homeowner, you need to know what the signs of stucco damage are so that you can be prepared for any emergency. The following are some of the most common signs that you should take note of:

When stucco breaks apart, it’s an indication that there is a structural problem with your home. This could be something as simple as a crack in your foundation or as serious as a serious structural issue that needs to be fixed by a licensed contractor.

These cracks can lead to water damage, rot, and foundation problems if not taken care of in a timely manner. This is why it’s important to have an expert inspect your home and fix any issues as soon as possible.

Cracks can be particularly ominous if you live in an area that is prone to earthquakes or shifting land. This is because these conditions can cause your stucco to crack in a way that’s difficult for you to detect on your own.

Another sign that your stucco has gotten damaged is if it’s fading. This can be a result of moisture in the environment, or it may be an issue with your previous contractor’s workmanship.

The fading of your stucco isn’t always a sign that you need to call a professional for stucco repair, but it is an important indicator. If your stucco is fading, it could be a sign that you have a moisture problem, and the damage will only worsen if you don’t fix it.

Mold is a common problem that occurs when stucco deteriorates and doesn’t get remediated. This can cause serious health concerns for your family, as the mold growth can be toxic and dangerous.

If you notice cracks in your stucco, it is best to have them repaired right away. This will prevent the cracks from spreading and causing further damage. In addition, you can save money by addressing the issue early on, instead of waiting until it becomes serious.

There are several reasons that your home’s stucco may be experiencing cracks. One of the most common causes is when stucco is not properly mixed and applied. This can happen when a contractor does not have experience with stucco application or if the materials they use aren’t high-quality.

Another reason stucco is prone to cracking is when the coat thickness is inconsistent. For example, some parts of your house might have 1/4-inch thick stucco, while other areas have 3/4-inch. The thickness of the stucco is important to ensure it can withstand changes in temperature and moisture.

Finally, stucco can also develop cracks because of water infiltration. Water can enter through stucco cracks and cause mold and dampness in your home.

A good way to avoid stucco cracks is to install a weather-resistant coating beneath your stucco. This coating will help your stucco withstand severe weather, helping it to better tolerate temperature changes.

Structural movement such as soil movement like slope creep, expansive soils, earthquakes, and settling can also cause stucco to crack. Additionally, strong winds from tornadoes or hurricanes can damage your property and create structural issues.

Vertical and stair-step-shaped cracks can indicate a problem with the wall itself rather than with your building structure or foundation. They can be caused by thermal expansion, water infiltration, poor installation of the stucco, or a weak base substrate.

These types of cracks should be inspected by a professional masonry expert. They will be able to determine the underlying cause of the cracks and whether they need to be repaired.

Pressure Washing You Need To Know

Power Washing is a process that uses high-pressure water sprays to remove mud, grime and loose paint from different surfaces. It is very effective and does not need any special equipment or knowledge. This method can be used for many different purposes, such as cleaning houses or offices and residential homes.

Pressure Washing

Power washing is a great way to improve curb appeal. It removes layers of dirt and grime, revealing a fresh and clean sight in a short period. In addition, Pressure Washing is the fastest way to remove heavy dirt and grime from exterior surfaces. It is also the best option for commercial and larger spaces.

Power washers come with different nozzles, each with its own advantages. Narrow nozzles deliver higher pressure and can damage surfaces, while wider ones use less pressure but spread the water more quickly. You should also wear protective clothing when using power washers, including gloves and glasses. This can help to prevent you from being injured during the process.

Power washing is also an effective way to clean a deck. The heating element used by power washing can remove stubborn stains and grime from a deck. But be careful: pressure washing can cause damage to masonry and brick. It can also chip off exterior paint. If you’re not sure whether a power washer is right for your home, consult a professional.

Power washing can protect your home from harmful mold and other dirt and can also increase your home’s curb appeal. High-pressure water comes from a specially designed pump that makes it more effective than a normal garden hose. This makes it much easier to remove stubborn stains and residue from surfaces and makes the cleaning process much easier.

Power washing is a great solution for heavy-duty jobs. It can be used for homes, businesses, and even cars. The pressure used for power washing is between two and four thousand pounds per square inch. You can find different PSI and different types of pressure washers, depending on the type of surface to be cleaned.

The average cost for pressure washing is $50 to $160 an hour for a professional. Generally, power washing companies use electric or gas-powered pressure washers for residential washing. A power washer is more expensive, but the heated element can remove paint and thick buildups. If you need a small amount of pressure, a medium-duty pressure washer can be enough. If you need to clean a bigger surface, a heavy duty one will clean it more effectively.

A common question is “when is power washing right for you?” A common answer is to use a soft-washing method. This method uses lower PSI, and is better for cleaning surfaces that are “softer.” But the truth is, it depends on the surface that you’re cleaning. If you’re cleaning concrete, for example, you need higher PSI. The best way to use a pressure washer is to test the water’s PSI and choose the right one for the job.

Power washing is a popular method of cleaning. It is similar to pressure washing, but uses more water and heat. The water that comes out is heated, which helps get rid of dirt and other particles. It is more expensive than a simple pressure washer. However, it can be used to clean hard surfaces. If you’re looking to clean concrete, cement, or other surfaces, you should consider a power washing technique.

You should also consider hiring a professional pressure washing company to do the cleaning for you. A professional pressure washing company will be able to clean your floors more effectively than you will. They will be able to clean the floor properly and you will not have to worry about damaging the floor while you are doing the cleaning.

You will also find that the price of the service you are getting from a professional pressure washing company is more affordable than you may think. The companies that are cheaper will not give you the quality work you expect. They will be less efficient and you may end up with dirty floors instead of clean floors.

Before you decide to get a pressure washer to clean your garage floors, you should consider these options and think about how much time you want to spend cleaning the floors. If you are planning to clean your garage for a long time, it may be more convenient to use a broom or brush to do the cleaning instead of a pressure washing machine.

Metal Roof Repair – Why You Should Hire a Professional

Metal roof repair is often associated with installation mistakes and oversights. It’s a good idea to get your metal roof inspected every two years to detect small problems and fix them before they get worse. Standing seam metal roofing is designed to protect the joints and seams of the roof system, and it’s what gives it its striking appearance and dramatic shadows. It also protects from leaks because the reinforced seams are glued together. Still, you may need to perform metal roofing repairs from time to time.


While metal roofs are durable enough to support human weight, you should avoid walking on them. The weight can cause tears and punctures, so if you’re doing home repairs, be sure to contact a professional. While caulking can mask a problem, it is not a permanent fix and should only be applied by a professional. Likewise, don’t attempt to repair metal roofing yourself. While you can use caulk to patch a hole or tear in a metal roof, this is a temporary fix and you should not attempt to climb on it.
There are several steps you should follow to fix a metal roof. It’s important to have the proper equipment and know what you’re doing. You’ll want to tread carefully and don’t bend metal panels when fixing a leak. Once you’ve found the cause of the problem, it’s time to start the repair. If you’re able to identify the problem, you can prevent extensive damages by hiring a professional.
You can choose to replace individual metal panels on your roof, which will save you some money. If you want to save money, you can consider coating the entire metal roof with a special coating. Not only will this extend the life of your roof, but it will reduce your heating and cooling costs. In addition to improving the appearance of your home, it can also improve the value of your property. If you’ve rented out your home to tenants, you should be sure to hire the services of a professional who specializes in this field.
While most damage caused by severe weather is covered by homeowner’s insurance, it is not covered for cosmetic damage. In addition, homeowners should keep in mind that while metal is a storm-resistant material, large hail can distort interlocking seams and flashings. Nonetheless, it is still important to conduct periodic inspections and maintenance for high-quality metal roofs. Cleaning and trimming trees back from the roof are vital to keeping a metal roof in good condition.
A well-maintained metal roof can last for many decades and require minimal maintenance. By regularly inspecting and repairing the damage, you can prevent further extensive damage. Whether you have a faulty or improperly installed metal roof, it’s important to have it repaired by a professional to avoid extensive expenses. Using a professional can help you avoid hefty repairs and other unexpected costs. If the damage is minor, it’s best to hire a roofing contractor with expertise in this field.
While there are many reasons for metal roof repairs, there are also some situations where it’s best to replace the whole roof. Depending on the type of damage, a metal roof can be repaired with simple repairs. If the damage is caused by age or natural factors, it may be necessary to have a new one installed. A roofing contractor should have the experience to repair the damaged area. This will help you to avoid costly damages and delays.
It’s possible to repair a metal roof by replacing a few damaged panels, but it’s recommended to use a professional who has experience in this type of work. You can also opt for a coating for the entire roof. The coating will extend the life of the metal roof and will save you money. This will also reduce the heating and cooling costs of your home. It’s important to take note of the age and character of your building before hiring a company to repair the damage on the roof.
Metal roof repair shouldn’t be difficult if you follow the right steps. A professional roofing contractor will be able to identify any potential problems early on and prevent further damage to the structure. In addition, if you’re unsure about the cause of a leak, it’s important to seek professional advice. You’ll need to know the extent of the damage and how much it’s costing you money. If you’re unable to afford a full replacement, consider coating the entire roof with a protective coating. This will help extend the life of the metal roof and help you cut down on the cost of heating and cooling.

11 Cosy Dining Nooks that Won’t Make You Miss a Full Dining Set

Who needs a full-fledged dining set when you have these quaint and cosy dining nooks? These ideas work well with smaller households, in families that don’t do a lot of eating in, or if you just don’t have a lot of space to play with. From wall-mounted bar booths to slide-out countertops, you will definitely want to pull up a chair to these tables.

1. Couched behind

dining nook

Positioned just behind the couch, this royal blue dining nook stands out from the neutral-hued space whilst mirroring the wall behind it. Fluted details lend interest. Pro tip: You’ll want to design this slightly raised so that there’s a visual difference between the living area and the dining spot.

Design: D’Marvel Scale

2. Flip it up

small space dining nook

Narrow space? No problem. Consider this flip-up dining table that can be flipped back down after meals so that it takes up only the most minimal of spaces.

Design: Hoft Interior

3. Rounded end

bto dining nook kitchen island

Ooh, we really like this one. This round dining table joins together with the kitchen island at one of its corners. It helps to offset the edges and lines in the space, while minimising the footprint it takes up.

Design: Notion of W

4. Sleek and Slide

dining nook ideas

Extending out from the TV feature wall in the living room, this dining banquette comes with a sliding tabletop that is able to accommodate a more generous dining space when needed.

Design: Free Space Intent

5. A hint of nostalgia

If we could crush on dining nooks, this one will be on the top of our list with its emerald green seating, feature wall made up of mustard tiles and the fluted table stand. The colour scheme leans towards retro, but the silhouettes are definitely timeless enough.

Design: Monocot

6. Green spot

A burst of greenery peeks out from this wall-mounted bar table, lending a refreshing touch to this clean, contemporary space. The addition of the decals and the typography enhance this dining nook’s young and fun vibe.

Design: Wolf Woof

7. Option to swivel

Another savvy space-saving dining nook that can be swung out during mealtimes! Positioned within the TV feature, it’s a major bonus for folks who like having dinner in front of the telly.

Design: Hello Embryo

8. Glide away

With the ability to glide back and forth from the built-in storage piece it is attached to, this dining table offers more flexibility in terms of seating and the usage of space.

Design: D’Marvel Scale

9. Pull-out table

Pull out the sides of this kitchen peninsula to reveal a petite dining table just for two. And you don’t even need special counter-height dining chairs for it since the pull-out tabletop is designed at a lower height.

Design: Wolf Woof

10. By extension

The kitchen counter was extended all the way into the living room in this small condominium, accommodating an extra area for a cosy dining nook. Sliding panels underneath the dining counter offer storage for serving ware.

Design: Habit

11. Island life

To incorporate a casual dining spot and a home bar, the marble-grain kitchen island was combined with a wood tabletop. The amalgamation of the two materials not only lends visual interest, but also helps to contrast the functions of the space.

Design: Design Zage

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An Overview of the Different Types of Residential Roofing

residential roofingCommercial Roofing Products contains those products needed to deliver a superior quality roofing solution for a commercial user s property, commercial garage, or other commercial applications. Commercial roofing products used in residential buildings are generally designed for heavier applications. In addition to commercial applications, residential roofing systems are also used in schools, green housing complexes, and hospitals. To meet the unique requirements for each application, manufacturers of residential roofing provide an extensive line of high-quality products designed for the application mentioned above.

For the commercial buildings, different materials are used as roofing material, including slate, shingle, tile, clapboard, and metal. While for the residential roofs, wood is the most common roofing component used. The maintenance of these residential roofs depends upon the quality of the installation. Moreover, timely repair and replacement are essential to make sure that the residential roofs provide a long term service.

Asphalt Shingles Residential Roofing Materials used in asphalt shingles are the most common roofing materials used for residential buildings. The basic function of these roofing materials is to protect the structure from the weather as well as to facilitate the easy movement of water. These shingles are generally fabricated out of aluminum. This provides improved resistance against fire. Although, recent studies have revealed that aluminum exhibits some negative effect on human health as a result of inhaling aluminum dust.

The other materials used in the construction of the residential roofing systems include steel, clay and gypsum underlayments. Steel is the most suitable choice as it offers better resistance against rust and corrosion. Moreover, it is also available in different alloys for superior performance. Clay and gypsum are cheaper alternatives which offer satisfactory performance as far as insulation is concerned. However, these materials are prone to deteriorate over time. This leads to more frequent repair works and therefore, a higher cost.

Asphalt Shingles Residential Roofing Materials used in the construction of asphalt shingles are known to be very strong when compared to clay or gypsum underlayments. The main reason behind this is that asphalt shingles exhibit excellent thermal conductivity. These materials are also highly durable when compared to clay or gypsum underlayment. Moreover, they are available in different alloys, ensuring superior performance when it comes to durability. Moreover, asphalt roofing shingles are available in various thicknesses and sizes to meet the requirements of different residential structures.

Modified Bitumen Home Roof Systems A roof made of bitumen, the modified bitumen roof system is one of the most advanced and modern roofing products available in the market today. With the help of this system, you can easily add insulation to your home without spending a lot of money. This system is quite similar to asphalt roofing shingles but possesses additional insulation properties that make it a far better residential roofing product. However, as this type of roof system is comparatively expensive than clay or gypsum based roof systems, it is often purchased by home owners who do not have much budget for other roofing materials.

Metal Roof Systems The best part about metal roof systems is that they do not require much maintenance. Compared to clay or gypsum based roof systems, the metal roof systems do not need the tedious and expensive process of painting. These systems are far more durable and come with a long lifespan. Moreover, the most important advantage of these metal roof systems is that they are highly flexible and portable. You can easily move them from one place to another. Unlike clay or gypsum based roof systems, metal roof systems are very easy to install and can withstand all sorts of weather conditions.

With the above mentioned types of residential roofs, you will be able to enjoy several advantages. However, before you install any type of roof system on your home, you should consult an expert who can advise you on the type of residential roofs that would suit your home. Apart from the type of roof that you install, you should also keep in mind various factors that would affect the life expectancy of your roof. It is highly recommended that you hire a professional to carry out the job, because this will ensure that you get quality work done at a reasonable price. You should ensure that the residential roofs you are installing are designed in a way so that they are strong and durable. You can easily find several contractors online that are experienced and skilled so that you get quality work done for an affordable price.